Monday, April 20, 2020

Nature/Nurture Essay Example

Nature/Nurture Essay Nature/Nurture Name: Institution: Nature/Nurture We will write a custom essay sample on Nature/Nurture specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Nature/Nurture specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Nature/Nurture specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer 1. The Nature versus Nurture decorum involves the comparative significance of the intrinsic qualities of a person against individual experiences in verifying or causing personal dissimilarities within corporeal and behavioral characteristics. In summary, the factors of nature and nurture influence the traits and characteristics human beings acquire based on genetics or the respective environmental milieu. The issue of child development necessitates the discourse exemplified within the Nature versus Nurture debate. On one hand, psychologists and geneticists allege that the development of a child gains influence from nature, which comprises genetics and biological predisposition. On the other hand, psychologists and geneticists assert that the development of child gains basic influence from nurture, which constitutes the environment. Nevertheless, consideration of these pair of assumptions surmises that both nature and nurture play a significant role in endorsing child development. 2. Indeed, the environment in which an individual occupies possesses considerable influence on development. According to Friendly Teacher (2005), the impact of the environment on the behavior of a person is indeed a generally acknowledged fact. However, with respect to this factor, it is also important to consider the quantity of the environment’s influence on an individual’s mannerisms and capabilities. As such, one environmental factor that poses influence on child development is nutrition. As a basic factor, nutrition poses a vital impact on an individual’s capabilities since it is broadly associative with the development of children in terms of personal growth and health. While considering the surroundings of an individual regarding the influence on ability, nutrition portrays a vital illustration. For instance, a certain study documents an instance in which a group of children consumed mineral and vitamin supplements for eight consecutive months (Friendly Te acher, 2005). In addition, the experiment inculcated intelligence examinations prior to and after the eight month treatment. As such, the outcomes revealed enhancements in the scores regarding the group in comparison to another group that did not take the supplements (as quoted in Nature vs. Nurture, 2001). Alternately, the interpretation of the results illustrates that the environment poses a significant responsibility in the development of intellectual aptitude among people. Another environmental factor that poses influence on child development is social interaction. Social interaction in the environment allows individuals to commune, learn and develop language as well as viable verbal and non-communication patterns, which assist considerably in the facilitation of development. As such, children exposed to a range of social activities such as playing, story telling and other co-curricular activities over time develop socially, emotionally and mentally based on the social relationships they creat e through the interacting activities. 3. Correspondingly, the genes innate within every individual incur a considerable effect on personal development. The basis of genes forms the nature of every person based on their genetics and biological composition. These genetic codes pass from one person to another because of the possibility of heredity. Such genetic codes influence different traits among individuals such as behavior, intelligence quotient (IQ) and height. Furthermore, the genes within people compose the dissimilarity that is evident among persons. These dissimilarities include physical characteristics such as the color of hair, the color of the eye as well genetically inherited diseases (SASJones, 2010). The illustration within Twin Studies indicates the matter of nature as a major influence on the development of children. Flanagan (2002) investigated the Minnesota Study, which comprised a pair of twins fostered separately. In one instance, indistinguishable twins, known as the Jim Twins, gained separate nurturing. The twins did not encounter each other after nearly forty years and surprisingly, possessed numerous similarities regardless of being apart for a long time. Interestingly, there was no evidence regarding the similarities except for the fact that nature posed a significant responsibility in the development. According to Flanagan (2002), â€Å"The Minnesota Twin Study concluded that on multiple measures of personality and temperament, occupational and leisure-time interests and social attitudes, mono-zygotic twins reared apart are about as similar as are mono-zygotic twins reared together† (as quoted in SASJones, 2010). As such, one cannot negate the fact that nature, in terms of genetics, creates substantial impact on development. As much as nature plays an important role in development through the transmission of different traits resulting from genes, it is also evident that nature influences child development through genetic abnormalities. Genetic abnormalities do not necessarily arise out of heredity. Instead, they depend on the genetic composition as well as instruction in the formation of cells within organisms. Usually, genetic instructions are fallible and can thus digress from the normal manner of functioning. Occasionally, when the formation of a sperm or ovum takes place, the quantity of chromosomes may partition unequally forcing the organism to possess a larger or smaller amount of chromosomes other than the standard 23. Furthermore, in the event that an abnormal cell amalgamates with a standard cell, the resulting zygote will possess an unequal figure of chromosomes, which will result into a baby with a syndrome that has an array of distinguishing characteristics that influence development in a di fferent manner. 4. The Nature versus Nurture debate prompts further study regarding the impact of genetics and the environment in the progress of health and behavioral issues from infancy to maturity. Research conducted on social and psychological aspects of individuals focuses on the association between cognition, sentiment and violent behavior. One study carried out by a faction of scientists in 2005 focuses specifically on violent behavior. The objective of the research delved on proving the permutation of genetics and the environment in influencing the development of criminally violent individuals. As such, the study gathered individuals who possessed the MAO-A gene. The MAO-A gene is a gene that comprises two alleles, of which one form is short and the other form is long. These alleles constitute the MAOA-uVNTR and the 5-HTTLPR genes (SASJones, 2010). Furthermore, the study focused on using an environment comprised of instances of violent childhood and upbringing in order to determine the corre lation between the genes and the violent background in developing criminal violence among persons. The outcome of the study indicated that the interaction of genes and the environment possessed credible impact in the development of violent persons. According to SASJones (2010), the study depicted that the evidence of 74 percent correlation between a short MAO-A form, an unfavorable background and aggressive behavior. Based on the study, individuals that possessed a long MAO-A form as well as an unpleasant childhood exuded less susceptibility towards violence. The results also proved similar for individuals that possessed a short MAO-A form and a most favorable childhood. With respect to the fact that the 5HTT gene posed null association to violence, it is evident that persons with the 5HTT gene, a diminutive MAO-A allele and an unfavorable background showed more violence than individuals who did not have the 5HTT gene. As such, the general outcome of the study proved that both factors, genes and the environment, influences violent behavior among individuals and as such, depict the influence of nature and nurture on development. 5. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) poses significant association towards the notion of heritability. The concept of ADHD heritability influences the degree to which an individual is likely to gain ADHD. Thapar et al., (2006) asserts that the risk of gaining ADHD is greater among relatives with ADHD and conduct disorder. Additionally, genetic aspects among family members contribute enormously to ADHD symptoms ultimately. Alternately, certain genes influence ADHD irrespective of the fact that most of them do not possess a considerable impact in facilitating the disorder. Consequently, the genes influencing ADHD do not influence the development of the disorder wholly but in traits encompassing the illness. According to Thapar et al., (2006), the DRD4 7-repeat allele, which constitutes the DRD4 gene, is responsible for anti-social behavior among children suffering from ADHD. Additionally, Faraone (2000) acknowledges that the genetic studies conducted on the DRD4 gene as well as the DAT gene indicate that individuals with these genes are likely to gain ADHD. Furthermore, the polymorphism associated with both genes with respect to their respective alleles depicts potential acquisition of the disorder among individuals. Nevertheless, as much as both genes possess direct linkage towards being the causative factor of ADHD, the genes still possess an insignificant effect on ADHD heritability based on the deviating nature of their polymorphic forms. Other genetic studies performed on individuals with ADHD assert that 75 percent of the persons suffering from the disorder possessed one duplicate of the allele and as such, negate the influence of polymorphism as well as presence of genes as substantial factors towards the development and attainment of ADHD (Faraone, 2000; Thapar et al., 2006). 6. Regardless of the consistent amount of experiments conducted on affirming the Nature versus Nurture hypothesis, it is still possible to outline novel forms of testing that are possible for illustrating the concept. An example of an experiment regarding the interaction between nature and nurture with respect to development is the performance of adoption studies. Adoption studies differentiate from twin studies since they focus on deducing the influence of genes and the surroundings of an individual among persons with different genes. In summary, adoption studies focus on adopted children, the different traits they possess as well as the similar environment that they share with their adopted parents and its effect on their development. Furthermore, the study could be more beneficial in explaining the role of genes and the environment on development. An example of an adoption study would comprise a study involving the study of the traits intrinsic within adopted children. In the study, the adopted children share familial heredity but live together with foster parents. In conduction of the study, research will entail testing a foster family with adopted children and the adopted children’s biological family. The main objective of the study will focus on outlining the relationship between heredity and background in facilitating development among children. The children, while being adopted, will share the surroundings with other children but will not share similar genes with them. As such, the argument made for this study involves the possibility of the adopted children sharing more traits and features with their foster families in comparison to their biological families. The outcomes of the result will outline that nature and nurture facilitate development among children since the adopted children will not share traits with t he foster families but will accentuate the norms and values of their foster families. Conclusion In conclusion, nature and nurture possess credible and significant influence on the development of children. The number of studies carried out to test the concept acknowledges that genes and the environment affect the manner in which a child develops from infancy to maturity. Moreover, the prevalence of genetic diseases such as ADHD further supports the concept based on the assertion that heritability and the surroundings facilitate the disorder and hence a child’s development. References Faraone, S.V. (November 01, 2000). Genetics of childhood disorders: XX. ADHD, part 4: Is ADHD genetically heterogeneous? Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 11, 1455-1457. Retrieved from Friendly Teacher (2005, Dec 16). The childhood development Nature vs. Nurture debate continues. Retrieved from SASJones. (2010, Aug 5). Nature vs. nurture: Either, or; or both? Retrieved from Thapar, A., Langley, K., Asherson, P., Gill, M. (Jan 01, 2007). Gene-environment interplay in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and the importance of a developmental perspective. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 1-3. Retrieved from

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